Friday, 27 May 2016

10 Days That Shocked The World



    10 Days That Shocked The World list is taken from the 12 Days That Shocked The World which is a twelve part special that premiered on the Australian's History Channel from 11 June 2007 to 22 June 2007. The other two days from "12 Days That Shocked The World" are the day of John Lennon shot and the day when Adolf Hitler died. We have the list of ten events that shocked the world and some events may injured nearly thousands of people. 
    
     Throughout history, the world has experienced a row of catastrophic events from terror attacks on WTC(World Trade Center) to the Sinking of Titanic Ship, these past events have shaped the world. In fact, some of these historical events had altered the cultures around the world.

These are the 10 sad days which taken the life of innocent people:

10. Sinking of the RMS Titanic:


    The sinking of RMS Titanic happened on the night of 14 April and this continues till to the morning of 15 April 1912 in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. This occurred just four days after the ship departure from Southampton to New York City. The largest passenger ship which can hold nearly 2,224 people on board. At 23:40 on Sunday(14 April 1912), the titanic strike to an ice burg which results in the deaths of more than 1,500 people. The ship took nearly two hours and forty minutes to sink at 02:20 on 15 April. This made one of deadliest maritime disasters ever in history.

During the incident, the Titanic received six warning of sea ice, but the ship was in maximum speed which results in a glancing blow that buckled her starboard (right) side and damaged five of her sixteen compartments. Unfortunately, the ship is designed to stay afloat with four of her compartments. After the crew realized that the ship would sink, they used flares and radio messages to alert other nearer ships. Titanic lifeboats are designed to send passengers to nearby rescue vessels, not to hold everyone on board simultaneously. Sadly, few titanic lifeboats were launched before they were totally full.

The ship sank with nearly thousand passengers and crew on board. And the people who jumped or fell into the water are drowned within minutes due to hypothermia's effect. On 15 April by 09:15, RMS Carpathia arrived at the spot and rescued the last of the survivors.

9. 1989's Tiananmen Square Protests: 


    The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, was well known in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident or the '89 Democracy Movement'. On the first half of 1989, the student-led popular demonstrations in Beijing and received broad support from city residents, exposing deep alters within China's political leadership. The protests were forcibly suppressed by hardline leaders who ordered the military to enforce martial law in the country's capital. The crackdown initiated on June 3-4 was literally known as the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The troops killed unarmed civilians who are trying to block the way to the military tanks towards Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, which students and other demonstrators had occupied for seven weeks. The estimated count of civilians death will be at anywhere between hundred and thousands. The Chinese government condemned the protests as a counter-revolutionary riot and has largely prohibited discussion and remembrance of the events.

The protests were raised in April 1989 due to the death of former Communist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang. Yaobang was a liberal reformer who was deposed after losing a power struggle with hardliners over the direction of political and economic reforms. At Tiananmen Square, the university students marched and gathered to mourn. Hu had also voiced grievances against inflation, limited career prospects, and corruption of the party elite. The protestors demanded the Govt. Accountability, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and the restoration of workers' control over the industry. Nearly million people assembled in the Square, most of them are the students from universities in Beijing.

8. Apollo 11:


     Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that made human to land on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC, American Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon, Armstrong became the first guy to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC. After 20 minutes, Aldrin joined him and they spent two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft and collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material for return to Earth. The third member of the mission, Michael Collins, piloted the command spacecraft alone in lunar orbit, until Armstrong and Aldrin returned to it just under a day later for the trip back to Earth.

On July 16, Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission of NASA's Apollo program and this spacecraft is launched by a Saturn V rocket from  Kennedy Space Center in Merritt Island, Florida. The spacecraft was divided into three parts: a Command Module (CM) with a cabin for the three astronauts, and the only part that landed back on Earth; a Service Module (SM), which supported the Command Module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a Lunar Module (LM) for landing on the Moon (which itself was composed of two parts). After the astronauts separated the spacecraft from Saturn V rocket upper chamber and took nearly three days for Armstrong and Aldrin to move into the Lunar Module and then they landed in the Sea of Tranquility. They stayed a total of about 21½ hours on the lunar surface. After lifting off in the upper part of the Lunar Module and rejoining Collins in the Command Module, they returned to Earth and landed in the Pacific Ocean on July 24.

7. Attack on Pearl Harbor:


     The attack on Pearl Harbor, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the Hawaii Operation or Operation AI by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, and Operation Z during planning, was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II.

Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the next seven hours, there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U.S.-held Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.

The attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese fighter planes, bombers, and torpedo planes in two waves launched from six aircraft carriers. All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four, sunk. All but Arizona were later raised, and six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship,[nb 4] and one minelayer. 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded. Important base installations such as the power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also the home of the intelligence section), were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured.

6. Chernobyl disaster:


      The Chernobyl Disaster also knew as the Chernobyl accident or Chernobyl. On 26, April 1986, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Pripyat, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union (USSR), a catastrophic nuclear accident took place with an explosion which  released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere of Wester USSR and the Europe.

This disaster was the worst nuclear power plant accident ever took  in history  in terms of cost and casualties. It is considered as one of the two classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The other is the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011. This disaster involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles. This disaster killed 31 people and other people affected by the long-term effects such as cancers.

5. John F. Kennedy assassination:


     John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC) on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. Fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, Kennedy was traveling with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation from November 1963 to September 1964 by the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in shooting Kennedy and that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald before he could stand trial. Kennedy's death marked the fourth and latest successful assassination of an American President. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became President upon Kennedy's death, taking the constitutionally prescribed oath of office onboard Air Force One at Dallas' Love Field airport before departing for Washington, D.C.

In contrast to the conclusions of the Warren Commission, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded in 1979 that Kennedy was “probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.” The HSCA agreed with the Warren Commission in that Kennedy's and Connally’s injuries were caused by Oswald’s three rifle shots, but they also determined the existence of additional gunshots based on analysis of an audio recording and therefore "...a high probability that two gunmen fired at [the] President." The Committee was not able to identify any individuals or groups involved in the conspiracy. In addition, the HSCA found that the original federal investigations were “seriously flawed” in respect of information-sharing and the possibility of a conspiracy. As recommended by the HSCA, the acoustic evidence indicating conspiracy was subsequently re-examined and rejected.

In light of the investigative reports determining that "reliable acoustic data do not support a conclusion that there was a second gunman", the Justice Department has concluded active investigations, stating “that no persuasive evidence can be identified to support the theory of a conspiracy in … the assassination of President Kennedy”. However, Kennedy's assassination is still the subject of widespread debate and has spawned numerous conspiracy theories and alternative scenarios. Polling in 2013 showed that 60% of Americans believe that a group of conspirators was responsible for the assassination.

4. Death of Diana, Princess of Wales:


     On 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died as a result of injuries sustained in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, France. Her lover, Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the Mercedes-Benz S280, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene; the bodyguard of Diana and Dodi, Trevor Rees-Jones, was the only survivor. Although the media blamed the paparazzi following the car, an 18-month French judicial investigation found that the crash was caused by Paul, who lost control of the car at high speed while drunk. Paul was the deputy head of security at the Hôtel Ritz and had earlier goaded the paparazzi waiting outside the hotel. His inebriation may have been exacerbated by anti-depressants and traces of a tranquilizing anti-psychotic in his body. The investigation concluded that the photographers were not near the Mercedes when it crashed.

Since February 1998, Dodi's father, Mohamed Al-Fayed has claimed that the crash was a result of a conspiracy, and later contended that the crash was orchestrated by MI6 on the instructions of the Royal Family. His claims were dismissed by a French judicial investigation and by Operation Paget, a Metropolitan Police Service inquiry that concluded in 2006. An inquest headed by Lord Justice Scott Baker into the deaths of Diana and Dodi began at the Royal Courts of Justice, London, on 2 October 2007, a continuation of the inquest that began in 2004. On 7 April 2008, the jury concluded that Diana and Dodi were the victims of an "unlawful killing" by the "grossly negligent" chauffeur Henri Paul and the drivers of the following vehicles. Additional factors were "the impairment of the judgment of the driver of the Mercedes through alcohol" and "the death of the deceased was caused or contributed to by the fact that the deceased was not wearing a seat-belt, the fact that the Mercedes struck the pillar in the Alma Tunnel rather than colliding with something else".

3. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand:


     The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were shot dead by Gavrilo Princip. Princip was one of a group of six assassins (five Serbs and one Bosniak) coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. The assassination led directly to the First World War when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, which was partially rejected. Austria-Hungary then declared war.

In charge of these Serbian military conspirators was Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence Dragutin Dimitrijević, his right-hand man Major Vojislav Tankosić, and the spy Rade Malobabić. Tankosić armed the assassins with bombs and pistols and trained them. The assassins were given access to the same clandestine network of safe-houses and agents that Malobabić used for the infiltration of weapons and operatives into Austria-Hungary.

The assassins, the key members of the clandestine network, and the key Serbian military conspirators who were still alive were arrested, tried, convicted and punished. Those who were arrested in Bosnia were tried in Sarajevo in October 1914. The other conspirators were arrested and tried before a Serbian court on the French-controlled Salonika Front in 1916–1917 on unrelated false charges; Serbia executed three of the top military conspirators. Much of what is known about the assassinations comes from these two trials and related records.

2. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima And  Nagasaki:


     The United States, with the consent of the United Kingdom as laid down in the Quebec Agreement, dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, during the final stage of World War II. The two bombings, which killed at least 129,000 people, remain the only use of nuclear weapons for warfare in history.

In the final year of the war, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This was preceded by a U.S. firebombing campaign that obliterated many Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945. The Japanese, facing the same fate, refused to accept the Allies' demands for unconditional surrender and the Pacific War continued. Together with the United Kingdom and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". The Japanese response to this ultimatum was to ignore it.

In July 1945, the Allied Manhattan Project successfully detonated an atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert and by August had produced atomic weapons based on two alternate designs. The 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces was equipped with the specialized Silverplate version of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, that could deliver them from Tinian in the Mariana Islands.

On August 6, the U.S. dropped a uranium gun-type atomic bomb (Little Boy) on the city of Hiroshima. American President Harry S. Truman called for Japan's surrender 16 hours later, warning them to "expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth". Three days later, on August 9, the U.S. dropped a plutonium implosion-type bomb (Fat Man) on the city of Nagasaki. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizeable military garrison.

On August 15, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union's declaration of war, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies. On September 2, it signed the instrument of surrender, effectively ending World War II. The bombings' role in Japan's surrender and their ethical justification are still debated.

1. 11 September 2001 attacks:


      The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks consisted of suicide attacks used to target symbolic U.S. landmarks.

Four passenger airliners—which all departed from airports on the U.S. East Coast bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists to be flown into buildings. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse in the Pentagon's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, the attacks claimed the lives of 2,996 people (including the 19 hijackers) and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.

Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on Al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by members of the U.S. military in May 2011.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
   

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